26 May, Sunday
24° C

The library of essays of Proakatemia


Kirjoittanut: Viragi Gunasekara - tiimistä Ei tiimiä.

Esseen tyyppi: Akateeminen essee / 3 esseepistettä.
Esseen arvioitu lukuaika on 8 minuuttia.


How to control employee distraction and anxiety while also raising their level of wellbeing and engagement at work is a significant topic of discussion among numerous executives and scholars. In the words of Schaufeli and others (2002), “A positive, fulfilling workplace-related mental state characterized by dedication, vitality, and concentration” is what is referred to by involvement in the workplace. In the world of management, work engagement has recently become one of the most essential concepts. Additionally, it offers beneficial advantages on workplace engagement (Sonnentag, 2003) and productivity among workers (Rich et al., 2010). When it comes to the characteristics that are necessary for successful teamwork, there can be multiple viewpoints ranging from “Visible to Invisible” (Figure 1). The meaning of “visible skill” refers to a technical development talent performed by a team member, also known as who the programmer is. Competency can be evaluated for this skill. (Wysocki et al, 1995) For effective teamwork, a different set of abilities known as “Emotional Intelligence” needs to be present. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Awareness of oneself, self-management, empathetic thinking, motivation, and social skills are the five components of emotional intelligence, and they are difficult to assess and unquestionably “invisible” technical talents.

Figure 1. A spectrum of skills needed for Teamwork. (This content uploaded by Joseph Luca )

A spectrum of skills needed for teamwork by Joseph Luca

This academic essay emphasizes on the ways that “Emotional Intelligence”, or “invisible skills” could enhance the effectiveness of teams.


A team is an assortment of different people with mutually beneficial abilities that cooperate in order to achieve something in common, according to Thompson in 2008. Teams of employees have these five essential characteristics. Teams are responsible for accomplishing a common goal, which is one trait. Each team member shares responsibility for accomplishing their collective goal, and if they are effective, they receive equal rewards. Next, a team’s interdependent function can be observed, where members depend on one another for ideas, knowledge, and skills. The teams are steady. To successfully complete the task at hand, the team must remain together for a sufficient amount of time, and each member must be encouraged to do so. Teams have authority and possess the decision-making power to chase their goals and manage the activities via completing their assignments. Also, teams operate in a social context. They have the advantage of access to resources available in other areas of their assembled organization for the specific work. (Thompson, 2008: Alderfer et. al., 1977.) Teams empower organizations with much more inclusive approaches, and they are now more prevalent in the commercial sector. It is essential for an organization to have an effective team for the purpose of strengthening motivation among workers and maximizing company productivity. (iEduNote.)


Many businesses nowadays concentrate a significant value on collaborating with teams. Team-based operations are 30% greater in efficiency than conventional operations, based on tests by Xerox executives. Team-based activities, according to General Mills, typically 40% more productive than conventionally managed places of employment. (Libraries). As reported by FedEx, some service challenges which include inaccurate billing and lost goods decreased by 13%. (Fisher, 1999: Greenberg & Baron, 2008). It is true that by engaging in company operations, teams can address many kinds of international concerns. Teams, nevertheless, occasionally fail to succeed. A single investigation on team-based projects discovered that some failed 50–70% of their attempts. (Thompson, 2008; Greenberg & Baron, 2008).


Personal development is a component of personality development that broadly refers to the process that enhances in a personally significant way. However, the notion of developing oneself and realizing one’s potential is open to a variety of interpretations, and it doesn’t appear that there is an unambiguous definition of personal progress that is also widely acknowledged. Personality psychologists have explored the topic of ego formation, including Jack Bauer and Dan McAdams. According to their perspective, one might express their personal growth in terms of life narratives, cognitive growth objectives (how complex one thinks about oneself and others), and experiential growth goals (how positive one feels about oneself in a world of others). When considering personal development,Gisela Labouvie-Vief (in 2003) uses the terminology of affect regulations. The study she conducted implies that affect optimization, the propensity to limit affect to positive values, and affect complexity, the amplifying of affect in the pursuit of difference and objectivity, should be treated independently. Increased hedonic well-being is defined by high levels of positive and low levels of negative affect, as well as high ratings of self-acceptance and a sense of control over one’s life. Emotional optimization supports this hedonic well-being. On the other side, high differentiators are characterized more in line with the fundamental principles of personal development, such as an interest in understanding one’s emotions, a high level of ambiguity tolerance, and high conceptual complexity, personal development, and empathy scores.(Vittersø, 2014)

The writings of Ursula Staudinger and her associates present a different growth strategy that establishes a clear distinction between two different growth processes. These researchers have claimed that wisdom is the prototype of human growth, based on the work of Paul Baltes. They also see significant justifications for distinguishing between two types of good human development. Their first category, personality adjustment, is concerned with a person’s functionality for both the individual and the community, in order to preserve or improve subjective well-being and to ensure daily life runs smoothly. Their second category of human development is more in line with traditional notions of self-improvement, such as the cultivation of certain qualities, like insight, integrity, self-transcendence, and the pursuit of wisdom. The notion that people’s expectations and needs to be continuously challenged by new experiences transcend the systems in which they have been socialized is a key tenet in this tradition. Thus, a key component of this strategy for personal development is being open to new experiences. Staudinger contends that a certain amount of adjustment is necessary but insufficient for personal progress, in contrast to those who contend that the two elements of growth should be viewed as mostly separate. (Vittersø, 2014)

Self-determination theory is another well-liked strategy for personal development. The self-determination theory (SDT), a wide theory of optimal human functioning and motivation, contends that human self-organization is inherently conducive to personal growth. As a result of intrinsically motivated processes that encourage exploration, discovery, manipulation, and play to satiate innate demands for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, individuals evolve toward greater functioning. The propensity to internalize and integrate social and cultural information is another sign of personal development in SDT. (Vittersø, 2014)


Emotions constitute a big part of people’s daily personal and professional existences. In the past two decades, the research on the subject of emotional intelligence (EI) has become both significant as well as fascinating. With Mayor and Salovery’s tireless efforts in 1993, all of these areas of study were strengthened, and their “Emotional Intelligence” (EI) model defines EI as having the ability to keep track of one’s own and other people’s emotions and utilize that data to inform one’s own decisions and actions. The 2nd approach to emotional intelligence (EI), commonly known as a mixed model, demonstrates interpersonal actions, traits, and capabilities. (Mandell & Pehrwani, 2003). Emotional intelligence is a combination of a wide range of talents that can be cultivated in people who lack it (Salovey 1997). The relationship between extroversion and the elements of emotional intelligence, according to Leary, Reilly, and Brown (2009), can pave the way towards better leadership and teamwork. A continuous and purposeful development of the individual as a whole towards the full potential of what she/he can become represents the way personal growth is defined. (Khalid, 2006). In 1999, Atkinson recognized four meta-abilities in the personal growth that individuals possess that are specialized for today’s managerial responsibilities. These include awareness of oneself, intellectual capacities, individual drive, and mental resilience. Maslow, the father of modern motivational theory, believed that personal development is an innate need that may be met and completed, but that human intervention like neurosis, shame, and despair could hinder its progress. According to psychologist Freud (1949), personal growth is the capacity for both loving and doing useful activity.

Many psychologists believe it is crucial that educators impart emotional intelligence to students in school so they can grow into emotionally intelligent adults who can contribute to positive and compassionate outcomes in society. Emotional intelligence contributes a significant role in forming and improving human growth. (Dardar , 2020)


Additional connections between emotional intelligence and effective teamwork have been demonstrated in the assessments above. In order to achieve success through teamwork, Yost and Tucker (2000) discovered that it is far more important to have a solid connection with emotional intelligence than it is to have the “Visible skills” in Figure 1 that are more heavily geared toward technical skills. A team member’s mastery of soft skills—abilities and techniques grounded in emotional intelligence—can create the distinction between accomplishment and lack of inspiration in working relationships in a team environment. (Tucker et al., 2000; Grossman 2000). Johnson, D.W., and Johnson, R.T. (1999) Learning both collaboratively and independently: Each team member should strive to develop productive relationships where members of the team have an understanding of the impact their emotions can have on the success and effectiveness of the team. In order everyone in the organization to be focused on achieving shared objectives, including the achievement of the project’s goals, a good emotional climate needs to be created (Johnson & Johnson, 1999).


The article examined the significance of emotional intelligence in an environment of collaboration. In accordance with the traits outlined by Goleman (1995, 1998a, 1998b), emotional intelligence of team members is an important consideration when assessing the team’s effectiveness, accomplishments, and the standard of the final product. Due to the significant influence, they can have on a team’s success, it is essential to take both visible skills and emotional intelligence into consideration when choosing members of the team for a collaborative atmosphere at work. (Luca, J., & Tarricone, P. 2001).


  • Fisher, K., (1999) Leading Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Developing New Team Leadership Skills, rev. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professiona
  • Frued, S. (1949). An Outline of Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.
  • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  • Goleman, D. (1998a). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 76, 93-102.
  • Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  • Greenberg, J., Robert A. Baron, Behavior in Organizations, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2008), 315–16.
  • Grossman, R.J. (2000). Emotions at Work. Health Forum Journal. Read on 05.03.2022
  • Teams:definition, characteristics,types and ingredients of effective Team. Read on 20.12.2022 https://www.iedunote.com/team
  • Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (5th ed.). Needham Heights: Massachusetts:
  • Bacon, A. Lanser, E.G. (2000). Why you should care about your emotional intelligence. Healthcare Executive. Reading on 14.03.2023
  • Khalid, S. (2004). Development and validity of the index of personal  growth  and  familial  and  dispositional   predictors   of   personal   growth   and   indent   of   personal   growth. PhD, unpublished   dissertation, National   Institute   of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam   University, Islamabad. Read on 27.03.2023 http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/bitstream/123456789/4662/1/1958.pdf
  • Leary, M. , Reilly, M.  D., & Brown, F.  W. (2009).  A Study of Personality Preferences and Emotional Intelligence Leadership and Ogazation Development Journal, 30(5), 421-434.
  • Exploring business: The Teams and the Organizations. Reading on 11.04.2023 https://open.lib.umn.edu/exploringbusiness/chapter/8-1-the-team-and-the-organization/
  • Luca, J., Tarricone, P. (2001). Does emotional intelligence affect successful teamwork. Reading on 03.04.2023. https://ro.ecu.edu.au/ecuworks/4834/
  • Mandell, B., Pherwani, (2003). Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 387-404.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2nd ed). New York: Harper.
  • Mayer, J. D, Salovey, (1993). The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence. Intelligence,17(4), 433-442.
  • Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: antecedents and effects on job performance. Acad. Manag. J. 53, 617-635.
  • Salovey, P. (1997). Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence:  Educational Implications.
  • Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9 (3), 185-211.
  • Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., Bekker, A. B.(2002). The measurement of burnout and engament: a confirmatory factor analytic approach. J. Happiness stud. 3, 71-92.
  • Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: a new look at the interface between nonwork and work. J. Appl. Psychol. 88, 518-528
  • Thompson, L. L., (2008) Making the Team: A Guide for Managers
  • Vittersø, J. (2014). Personal Growth. In: Michalos, A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. Reading on 27.04.2023. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2144
  • Wysocki, R.K., Beck, R., Crane, D.B. (1995). Effective project management. How to plan, manage, and deliver projects on time and within budget. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • Yost C.A., Tucker M.L. (2000). Are effective teams more emotionally intelligent? Confirming the importance of effective communication in teams. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 42 (2), 101-109.

Post a Comment