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MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP



Kirjoittanut: Frida Ateh - tiimistä Kaaos.

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Frida Ateh
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MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
INTRODUCTION
Prior to the early twentieth century, interest in leadership as an area to be studied was limited. Leadership, at the time, focused primarily on identifying the distinction between leaders and followers. In contrast, modern interest in leadership is more concerned with variables related to skill levels and situational factors. Management studies, on the other hand, gained notoriety a few decades earlier than the study of leadership issues: in the late nineteenth century. Over the years the study of both management and leadership has evolved. Management has moved beyond the emphasis on administration and bureaucracy with a view to increasing productivity and efficiency. Nowadays, the focus is on strategic management skills, the concept of competitive advantage, the use of data and process optimization. While the formal study of leadership may be relatively new, there has been a longstanding fascination. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982).
Management and Leadership must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing but they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves.
Management is how businesses organize and direct workflow, operations, and employees to meet company goals. Some would define management as an art, while others would define it as a science. The primary goal of management is to create an environment that employees work efficiently and productively. Dr Eulalee Nderu-Boddington 2008
Management consists of controlling a group or a set of entities to accomplish a goal. Leadership refers to an individual’s ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards organizational success. Influence and inspiration separate leaders from managers, not power and control.
Leadership means different things to different people. A definition usually depends on the perspectives, personalities, philosophies, values ​​​​and professions of those who define it. In its most basic form, leadership is defined as the art of moving others to want to struggle for shared aspirations. Therefore, a leader is an individual who possesses the ability to encourage, motivate or influence others. Because of the multitude of venues in which leaders are found, what constitutes leadership varies a great deal.
A common misconception is that one must be in an elected or appointed position of leadership in order to be a leader. Some of the most influential and dynamic leaders were never in a leadership position. Mohandas Gandhi is a popular example. It is truly one’s ability to put together the right set of characteristics and abilities to be able to create and communicate meaning, genuinely care about people, communicate clearly and honestly, be aware of the larger context of situations and Foster relationships with others that determines his or her leadership capacity.
Although there is no definite set of skills an individual must have to be a leader, here are some that are essential for the relationship-building critical to any leader:
Active listening
Conscientiousness
Empowerment
Effective communication
Persistence
Consistency
A few essential elements of leadership a leader must keep in mind in his or her role are:
Relationship building
Team building
Goal setting
Creating/communicating a vision
Delegation of a responsibility
Decision making
There are many Styles of leadership. No one is right or wrong, just different. The following is a list of the most common styles:
Autocratic: Top-down approach that usually includes the leader making most of the decisions alone.
Participatory: Leader includes followers in decision making and other processes.
Delegatory: Leader often shares responsibilities with followers.
Charismatic: Leader is well-liked by followers and has much influence in the organization.
Democratic: A leader uses the opinion of the majority of the group when making decisions and when delegating responsibility.
To be an effective leader, one must not only understand what it means to be a good follower, but be a good follower him or herself. Significant and ever-evolving progress in technology, government, business, demographics and economics require leaders to rely on the expertise and knowledge of many advisors. It’s very important to never assume the leader is more important than the follower; indeed, without the follower, there would be no leader.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
The major difference between leadership and management are as follows:
Leadership is a virtue of leading people through encouraging them. Management is a process of managing the activities of the organization.
Leadership requires trust of followers in his leader. Unlike Management, which needs control of the manager over his subordinates.
Leadership is a skill of influencing others while Management is the quality of ruling.
Leadership demands foresight of the leader, but Management has a short-range vision.
In leadership, principles and guidelines are established, whereas, in the case of management, policies and procedures are implemented.
Leadership is proactive. Conversely, management is reactive in nature.
Leadership brings change. On the other hand, Management brings stability.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP VS MANAGEMENT
The role of management is to control a group or group of individuals in order to achieve a specified objective. Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the organization’s success.
Management is responsible for controlling an organization, a group, or a set of entities to achieve a particular objective. Managing is about making sure the day-to-day operations are being performed as expected. A leader communicates in order to set direction, inspire, and motivate their team.
Leadership requires a vision to guide change. Whereas managers focus on achieving organizational goals through process implementation, such as budgeting, organizational structure, and staffing, leaders are more concerned with thinking ahead and seizing opportunities.
It is possible to be a manager and a leader at the same time. But keep in mind that just because someone is a great leader doesn’t mean they’ll be a great manager or the other way around. So, what factors distinguish these two roles? Moving ahead in this leadership vs management article, we explore those factors.
1. Differences in Vision
Leaders are considered as visionaries. They set the pathways to excel the organizational growth. They always examine where their organization stands, where they want to go, and how they can reach there by involving the team.
In comparison, Managers set out to achieve organizational goals by implementing processes, such as budgeting, organizational structuring, and staffing. Managers’ vision is bound to the implementation strategies, planning, and organizing tasks to reach the objectives set out by leaders. However, both of these roles are equally important in the context of business environments and necessitate associative efforts.
2. Organizing vs Aligning
Managers achieve their goals by using coordinated activities and tactical processes. They break down long-term goals into tiny segments and organize available resources to reach the desired outcome.
On the other hand, leaders are more concerned with how to align and influence people than how to assign work to them. They achieve this by assisting individuals in envisioning their function in a wider context and the possibility for future growth that their efforts may give.
3. Differences in Queries
A leader asks what and why, whereas a manager focuses on the questions of how and when. To do justice to their duties as a leader, one might question and challenge the authority to reverse decisions that may not be in the better interests of the team.If a firm has a stumbling block, a leader will be the one to step up and ask, what did we learn from this? and Why has this happened?
On the other hand, managers are not required to assess and analyze failures. Their job description emphasizes asking How and When, which assists them in ensuring that plans are carried out correctly. They prefer to accept the status quo and make no attempt to change it.
4. Position vs Quality
A manager is a role that frequently refers to a specific job within an organization’s structure, whereas the term leader has a more ambiguous definition. Leadership emerges as a result of your actions. You are a leader if you act in a way that inspires others to do their best. It makes no difference what your title or position is. On the other hand, a manager is a job title that comes with a fixed set of responsibilities.

THE SKILLS OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
To succeed in any type of managerial role, certain skills are essential. Some of the core competencies for the management profession include:
Leadership skills. Managers should be able to set a vision for their employees, inspire action, and hold everyone accountable.
Problem-solving skills. Managers should be able to brainstorm creative and efficient solutions to obstacles that may be abstract or complex.
Communication skills. Giving and receiving feedback, setting a vision, and offering reports to other members of senior management or shareholders are all essential components of management.
Organizational skills. Good managers should be able to juggle multiple projects at once and ensure that they don’t let any details slip through the cracks. Technology skills. Increasingly, computer literacy is necessary for managers at any level. Managers should also understand the technical skills relevant to their field.
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance is fascinating, hugely dynamic, and very far-reaching. It grew as a concept in response to increasingly serious corporate scandals of the late 1900s, and remains strongly concerned with these areas of corporate risk. The ideas surrounding Corporate Governance are increasingly useful for small organizations as well as the very largest. Corporate Governance also offers interesting perspectives for leadership, authority, ego, Wealth creation, greed, risk, responsibility, ethics, morality, etc., and how these issues Reconcile or conflict with organizational and market dynamics, and the needs of society, environment, quality of life, economic health, etc.
The Psychological Contract
The Psychological Contract is an increasingly relevant aspect of workplace relationships and wider human behaviour. Descriptions and Definitions of the Psychological Contract first emerged in the 1960s, notably in the work of organizational and behavioral theorists Chris Argyris and Edgar Schein. Many other experts have contributed ideas to the subject since then, and continue to do so, either specifically focusing on the Psychological Contract, or approaching it from a particular perspective, of which there are many. The Psychological Contract is a deep and varied concept and is open to a wide range of interpretations and theoretical studies.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for Survival itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are they concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.
Henry Fayol, also known as the Father of Modern Management Theory, gave a new perception on the concept of management. He introduced a general theory that can be applied to all levels of management and every department. They envisioned maximizing managerial efficiency. Today, Fayol’s theory is practiced by the management to organize and regulate the internal activities of an organization.
THE FOURTEEN PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT BY HENRI FAYOL
1. Division of Work
Henri believed that segregating work in the workforce among the workers will enhance the quality of the product. Similarly, they also concluded that the division of work improves the productivity, efficiency, accuracy and speed of the workers. This principle is appropriate for both the managerial as well as a technical work level.
2. Authority and Responsibility
These are the two key aspects of management. Authority facilitates the management to work efficiently, and responsibility makes them responsible for the work done under their guidance or leadership.
3. Discipline
Without discipline, nothing can be accomplished. It is the core value for any project or any management. Good performance and Sensible interrelation make the management job easy and comprehensive. Employees’ good behavior also helps them build and progress smoothly in their professional careers.
4. Unity of Command
This means an employee should have only one boss and follow his command. If an employee has to follow more than one boss, there begins a conflict of interest and can create confusion.
5. Unity of Direction
Whoever is engaged in the same activity should have a unified goal. This means all the people working in a company should have one goal and motive which will make the work easier and achieve the set goal easily.

6. Subordination of Individual Interest
This indicates a company should work unitedly towards the interest of a company rather than personal interest. Be subordinate to the purposes of an organization. This refers to the whole chain of command in a company.
7. Remuneration
This plays an important role in motivating the workers of a company. Remuneration can be monetary or non-monetary. Ideally, it should be according to an individual’s efforts they have put forward.
8. Centralization
In any company, the management or any authority responsible for the decision-making process should be neutral. However, this depends on the size of an organization. Henri Fayol Stressed on the point that there should be a balance between the Hierarchy and division of power.
9. Scalar Chain
Fayol, on this principle, highlights that the Hierarchy steps should be from the top to the lowest. This is necessary so that every employee knows their immediate senior also they should be able to contact anyone, if needed.
10. Order
A company should maintain a well-defined work order to have a favorable work culture. The positive atmosphere in the workplace will boost more positive productivity.
11. Equity
All employees should be treated equally and respectfully. It’s the responsibility of a manager that no employees face discrimination.
12. Stability
An employee delivers the best if they feel secure in their job. It is the duty of the management to offer job security to their employees.
13. Initiative
The management should support and encourage the employees to take initiatives in an organization. It will help them to increase their motivation and morale.

14. Esprit de Corps
It is the responsibility of the management to motivate their employees and be supportive of each other regularly. Developing trust and mutual understanding will lead to a positive outcome and work environment.
In conclusion, the 14 Principles of Management the Pillars of any organization. They are integral for prediction, planning, decision-making, process management, control and coordination.
CONCLUSION
Leadership and Management are inseparable in nature, if there is management, there is leadership. In fact, the qualities of a manager require leadership skills to inspire his subordinate. In an organization, you can see both management and leadership. There is a manager in a department and a number of leaders who work with their teams in assisting the organization in the accomplishment of their goals. Many times, Managers play the role of a leader too, at the demand of the organization. So, they both go side by side as a complement to each other. An organization needs both for its growth and survival.

 

REFERENCES

Zaleznick, A. (2004). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review
82(1) 74-81. Retrieved from https://tppserver.mit.edu/esd801/psds/11800988_Zaleznik_
HBR.pdf
Zaleznick, A. (2004). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review
82(1) 74-81. Retrieved from https://tppserver.mit.edu/esd801/psds/11800988_Zaleznik_
HBR.pdf
Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jago, A. G. (1982). Leadership: Perspectives in theory and research. Management Science.
Kotter, JP (2001). What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review, 79, 85-98.
Kotterman, J (2006) Leadership Versus Management: What’s the Difference? The Journal for Quality and Participation; Vol. 29, Iss. 2, 13-17
https://www.essortment.com/styles-leadership-36149.html

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