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HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN: Principles and Practices from a Range of Experts in Design Psychology



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  1. INTRODUCTION: 

Beyond aesthetics and functionality, design is a crucial component of every good or service. A well-designed product has the power to affect users’ emotions and even their behavior. In particular, design psychology is used in this essay to examine the fundamental ideas and recommended procedures of human-centered design.

In this essay’s first section, we’ll talk about the idea of emotional design. Designing with emotion in mind takes into account how color, form, and other aesthetic components can affect users’ emotions. It explores how design influences user perception and behavior as well as how to produce compelling designs that emotionally connect with users.

It is more important than ever to comprehend users’ complex behavior and fulfill their expectations in today’s fast-paced and rapidly changing market. The second section of the essay looks at how crucial it is to comprehend user behavior when developing user-centric designs. It offers tools and methods that designers can use right away, from website layouts to packaging colors, to incorporate psychology into their work.

User needs and experiences are central to the design process when using the human-centered design methodology. To develop goods and services that meet their needs, it aims to comprehend the context, actions, and goals of users. It can be used in a variety of contexts, from product design to service design, and it draws on a variety of disciplines, including design, psychology, and anthropology.

In the end, creating products and services that appeal to users requires using human-centered design. For designers looking to create user-centric designs that satisfy their needs and desires, understanding the principles and best practices of design psychology, such as emotional design and the application of psychology to design, is crucial. Designers can produce goods and services that not only satisfy users’ functional needs but also emotionally connect with them by embracing human-centered design principles and utilizing design psychology insights.

 

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL DESIGN


Design is not only about aesthetics, but also about functionality and ease of use. However, design can also affect users emotionally and influence their perception and behavior. This section of the essay explores the concept of emotional design based on Donald A. Norman’s books Designing for Emotion and The Design of Everyday Things (Norman, 2004; Norman, 2013). In addition to the importance of emotional design and how it can be used to create effective designs that resonate with users.

Designing products and user interfaces to elicit an emotional response from users is known as emotional design. Visceral, behavioral, and reflective are Norman’s three main subtypes of emotional design. The visceral element is the user’s immediate emotional response to the design (Norman, 2004). An instinctive response of excitement or admiration, for instance, may be triggered by the vivid colors and slender lines of a sports car. The emotional reaction to product use over time makes up the behavioral component. The user’s emotional reaction to product memories and associations is the final reflective component (Norman, 2013). Because it can make products more enticing and memorable, emotional design is crucial. Users are more likely to remember and develop positive associations with a design that elicits an emotional response (Norman, 2004). By making products more appealing and enticing users to interact with them more, emotional design can also affect how users behave (Norman, 2013).

Figure 1 Norman’s three main subtypes of emotional design

Additionally, emotional design can support the development of a more user-centric design. Designers can produce products that better satisfy users’ needs and desires by understanding their emotional needs and desires (Norman, 2004). Furthermore, emotional design promotes brand loyalty among customers and helps products stand out from rival offerings (Norman, 2013).

Many different products and user interfaces incorporate emotional design. For instance, Apple products are frequently used as examples of emotional design because their slick aesthetics and simple user interfaces elicit favorable emotional reactions from users (Norman, 2013). Another illustration is the Nike app, which makes exercise more entertaining and motivating for users through the use of gamification and social features (Wendel, 2013). Emotional design, though, can also be applied in less expected situations. For instance, a study by Desmet and Fokkinga (2018) discovered that emotional design can be used to produce more captivating and successful public communications. Your message will be more likely to stick with your audience if you can make them feel something.

Despite its potential as a potent tool, emotional design is not without its difficulties. The fact that emotional responses can vary greatly and be highly subjective among different users is one of the main difficulties (Norman, 2004). Because of this, it may be challenging to predict how users will react to a given design.

The potential for emotional design to be deceptive or unethical is another factor to take into account. One could consider it unethical, for instance, to use emotional design to persuade users to engage in addictive behaviors or to make unethical decisions (Wendel, 2013). Designers must exercise caution when utilizing emotional design to ensure that it adheres to moral standards and user needs and preferences.

To sum up, emotional design plays a crucial role in the realm of design psychology. It enables designers to create products that are user-focused, memorable, and captivating by evoking emotional responses in users. Nevertheless, designers must also acknowledge the challenges and factors that come with utilizing emotional design.

 

  1. UNDERSTANDING USER BEHAVIOR

 

In today’s quick-changing, continuously growing market, it is more important than ever to provide goods that not only meet customers’ wants but also beyond their expectations. However, since users might be complicated, unpredictable people, it is easier said than done. To create designs that genuinely connect with consumers, designers must dig into the intriguing and intricate realm of human behavior. This necessitates an in-depth comprehension of user motives as well as the trends and preferences that influence user behavior. The tools and techniques that designers may use to create products that are really user-centric are examined in this part, along with how understanding user behavior might affect design decisions.

The cognitive processes that affect decision-making are examined in “Thinking, Fast and Slow” by Daniel Kahneman. He explains how human minds employ two different modes of thought: System 1, which is quick, automatic, and intuitive, and System 2, which is more deliberate, slow, and logical. Kahneman explains how these two systems interact, occasionally in conflict, to influence our judgments and choices. He also demonstrates how cognitive biases can cause judgment and decision-making errors (Kahaneman, 2011).

Significant design ramifications result from these discoveries about cognitive processes. Designers can make products that reflect how people think by understanding how users make decisions. For instance, designers can assist users in making decisions more quickly and easily by using visual cues and simplification of information. On the other hand, designers run the risk of annoying users and losing them by designing interfaces that are too complex and demand too much cognitive effort.

The “The Elements of User Experience” by Jesse James Garrett offers a thorough overview of user-centered design principles and methods. Garrett focuses on the value of comprehending user needs and behaviors throughout the design process and offers a framework for producing user-centered designs. In order to design products that satisfy users’ needs and desires, he also emphasizes the value of empathy and exhorts designers to place themselves in their customers’ shoes (Grette, 2010).

Figure 2 The Elements of User Experience by Jesse James Garrett

The value of testing and iteration in the design process is one of the most important lessons to be learned from “The Elements of User Experience.”. Designers can make sure that their products satisfy the needs and expectations of their customers by regularly obtaining feedback and improving designs. Producing products that users adore and that propel business success requires this iterative process (Grette, 2010).

Designers can produce compelling designs that appeal to users by fusing ideas from “Thinking, Fast and Slow” and “The Elements of User Experience.”. Designers can develop products that fit with how people think and make decisions by understanding cognitive processes and user behavior. Designers can produce goods that satisfy customer needs and desires by emphasizing empathy and a user-centered approach.

For instance, a designer creating a mobile app may use the lessons from “Thinking, Fast and Slow” to streamline the user interface and make it simple for users to make snap judgments. To collect user feedback and improve the design in accordance with user needs and preferences, they might also make use of insights from “The Elements of User Experience.”. They can make sure that the finished product satisfies user needs and promotes business success by iterating and testing the design continuously.

It’s basic to comprehend client behavior in arrange to deliver plans that truly fulfill their needs and desires. Originators can make items that are in line with how individuals think and make choices by learning from works like “Considering, Quick and Moderate” and “The Components of Client Involvement.”. The advancement of items that really fulfill client needs and inclinations requires a user-centered methodology that emphasizes compassion. Creators can persistently improve their plans and create items that clients will adore by consolidating client criticism through an iterative testing prepare. Creators can create effective items that offer to clients and create income by joining these bits of knowledge into their plan prepare.

 

  1. APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY TO DESIGN:

 

Beyond its aesthetic appeal and practicality, design has an impact. It includes how people interact with products and how design can affect what they do. Psychology has long been a key component of design, influencing a variety of elements like website layouts and packaging colors. To create goods and services that encourage beneficial behavioral changes, designers today often draw on psychology. So, what are some practical resources available for designers to learn about applying psychology to design?

Wendel’s book “Designing for Behavior Change” offers helpful suggestions for creating systems and products that promote positive behavior change by integrating psychological and behavioral economics insights. Making the desired behavior simple and the undesirable behavior challenging is one of his main points. If the objective is to motivate people to exercise more, for instance, a designer might develop a fitness app that automatically records the user’s steps and offers tailored recommendations for stepping up activity. The app motivates users to keep working out by making it simple for them to see their advancement and get encouraging feedback. A fitness app that requires the user to manually enter their activity levels, however, is less likely to be successful because it is more challenging and time-consuming (Wendel, 2013).

Giving social support is a key principle Wendel touches on. Being social creatures, humans are more likely to exhibit behaviors that are supported by others. An online community where users of a certain product can exchange advice and encourage one another to succeed might be developed by a designer. Wendel points out that because it fosters a sense of community and accountability, this strategy may be particularly effective in promoting long-term behavior change (Wendel, 2013).

A slightly different strategy is used in Yocco’s “Design for the Mind,” which focuses on how design can be used to persuade and affect user behavior. He lists seven psychological principles—reciprocity, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, scarcity, and framing—that designers can use to produce persuasive designs. Reciprocity is the idea that when someone receives something first, they are more likely to give something in return. Given that users are more likely to stick with a product or service they have put time and effort into using, a designer may provide a free trial of it to entice users to sign up (Yocco, 2016).

Figure 3 Yocco’s psychological principlesng

Commitment and consistency are related principles that emphasize the importance of keeping promises and maintaining a consistent message. A designer might use these principles to encourage users to take small steps towards a larger goal, gradually building commitment over time. Social proof is the idea that people are more likely to follow the behavior of others, especially if those others are perceived as similar to themselves. A designer might use social proof by displaying reviews or testimonials from satisfied customers (Yocco, 2016).

A sense of urgency or exclusivity can be engendered around a good or service by using the principles of liking, authority, and scarcity. According to the concept of liking, people are more likely to be persuaded by those they respect or admire, while the concept of authority emphasizes the value of expertise and credibility. According to the theory of scarcity, when something is scarce or challenging to acquire, people value it more. These guidelines could be used by a designer to emphasize a product’s distinctive qualities or limited supply in order to create a sense of exclusivity around it (Yocco, 2016).

Finally, Designers seeking to promote positive behavior change can benefit greatly from incorporating principles from behavioral economics and social psychology. By doing so, products can be crafted to better assist users in achieving their objectives. Guides such as “Designing for Behavior Change” and “Design for the Mind” provide useful approaches to implement these principles in design, including simplifying desired actions, providing social reinforcement, and utilizing persuasive techniques. Now, it is the responsibility of our designers to continually investigate and incorporate psychological insights to create products and systems that improve users’ lives beyond aesthetics and functionality.

 

  1. HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN (HCD)

 

The needs and experiences of users come first in human-centered design (HCD), a design methodology. It is a methodology that begins with the target audience and entails comprehending their context, objectives, and behaviors in order to develop goods and services that satisfy their needs. HCD can be used in a wide range of contexts, from product design to service design and everything in between. It draws on a variety of disciplines, including design, psychology, and anthropology.

User-centered plan places the client at its center. The essential objective is to create natural, simple-to-use, and sincerely engaging items and administrations. Originators must have a intensive understanding of the user’s destinations, drives, and behaviors in arrange to achieve this. They must be able to put themselves within the user’s position and consider the plan from their perspective (Norman, 2013).

A critical component of plan is getting input. Clients can superior get it the product’s usefulness and learn how to utilize it viably with its help. Input must be provoke, straightforward, and appear the comes about of the user’s activities in arrange for the client to pick up from it. Sound, haptic input, and visual signals are fair some illustrations of the different ways that criticism can show up. To the advantage of the client, it is basic to form beyond any doubt the criticism is reasonable and nitty gritty (Norman, 2004).

Another factor that needs to be considered is how the design will affect users emotionally. It is crucial to design products that evoke positive emotions and foster a positive user experience because emotions can have a significant impact on user behavior and decision-making. Visceral, behavioural, and reflective design are effective ways to accomplish this (Garett, 2010).

A user’s initial emotional reaction to a product’s aesthetics is referred to as visceral design. The emotional impact of using a product is referred to as behavioral design. Reflective design describes how a product affects a user’s identity and sense of self on an emotional level. Designers can create a product that is not only useful but also emotionally engaging and memorable by designing it to appeal to the user’s emotions on all three levels (Garett, 2010).

Another crucial component of human-centered design is design for behavior change. Understanding user motivation and developing products that are simple to use while offering social support are two ways to encourage positive behavior change through design. Also crucial is immediate feedback on user behavior and goal-related progress. Designers can assist users in achieving their objectives and leading healthier, happier lives by creating products that promote positive behavior change (Yocco, 2016).

The human-centered design process also includes accessibility as a key component. It is crucial to create products that can be used by a variety of users, including those with disabilities. Research, prototyping, testing, and implementation should all take accessibility into account when designing a product. Designing accessible products can be done with the help of clear and consistent navigation, alternative text for images, and the ability to change font size and color contrast (Wendel, 2013).

In conclusion, human-centered plan may be a technique that places the client at the center. Creators can create items and administrations that are consistent, basic to utilize, candidly engaging, and accessible by comprehending client goals, behaviors, and inspirations. Architects can deliver merchandise and administrations that really address users’ needs and behavior by applying these standards to the plan prepare. Human-centered plan points to form items that move forward people’s lives in expansion to basically making them useful. Creators can deliver merchandise that are not as it were viable but moreover important and impactful by planning for the client.

 

  1. CONCLUSION

 

Design psychology offers useful insights into producing goods and services that successfully satisfy customers’ needs and preferences. Important elements that designers can use to create products that are not only functional but also emotionally impactful and emotionally engaging include user-centered design, behavioral economics, and social psychology principles. Designers can produce goods that genuinely connect with customers and elicit gratifying emotional reactions by understanding user behavior. Designers can apply ideas from behavioral economics and social psychology to encourage positive behavior change, such as making desired actions simpler and offering social reinforcement. Human-centered design, in its essence, puts the user at the center of the process and aims to produce goods and services that not only satisfy their functional requirements but also significantly enhance their quality of life. Designers can produce useful, impactful, and effective products that genuinely address the needs and behaviors of their users by continually researching and incorporating psychological insights into their design processes.

 

REFERENCES:

 

Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things: Revised and expanded edition. Basic Books.

 

Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. Basic books.

 

Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: User-centered design for the web and beyond. Pearson Education.

 

Wendel, S. (2013). Designing for behavior change: Applying psychology and behavioral economics. O’Reilly Media, Inc.

 

Yocco, V. S. (2016). Design for the mind: Seven psychological principles of persuasive design. Manning Publications Co.

 

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Penguin Books.

 

Desmet, P. M., & Fokkinga, S. F. (2018). Design for public health: A versatile emotional design approach. International Journal of Design, 12(1), 51-65.

 

Featured image for the post made by Midjourney A.I.

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